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TARDIGRADES Tardigrades are microscopic, water- dwelling, segmented animals with eight legs. They have been on earth for 530 million years and are found all over the world. In fresh water sediments, there may be as many as twenty-five thousand per litre. They survive extreme environments that would kill almost any other animal, including temperatures close to absolute zero or as high as 151°C, a thousand times more radiation than other animals and almost a decade without water. They have also survived exposure to the vacuum of outer space.
KOREANS Koreans are believed to be from the Altaic – speaking tribes, named after the Altai Mountains, in Central Asia. Early Koreans migrated from south-central Siberia to populate ancient Korea in successive waves from the Neolithic age to the Bronze Age. Koreans are one of the largest ethnically and linguistically homogeneous groups in the world. They refer to themselves as Choson Saram or Hanguk Saram.
LIGHT After detailed study of the motion of Jupiter's moon Io, Ole Rømer concluded in 1676 that light travelled at a finite speed. In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell, building on the earlier work of Ampère, Coulomb and Faraday, proposed that light was an electromagnetic wave, and therefore travelled at the speed (c) relative to some unconfirmed medium he called “aether”. Michelson-Morley’s experiments of 1887, failed to find this “aether” but unexpectedly demonstrated that light travelled at the same speed regardless of whether it was measured in the direction of the Earth’s motion or at right angles to it; completely contrary to classical physics and common sense at the time. In 1905, Einstein realised that Maxwell’s equations led to an apparent paradox in the laws of physics. They suggested that by catching up to a beam of light, a stationary electromagnetic wave could be seen - an impossibility. He also realised that the whole idea of aether as a medium for light to travel in was totally unnecessary. According to Einstein’s theory of special relativity, the speed of light (c) was the maximum speed at which all matter (and thus information) in the universe could travel. For many practical purposes, light and other electromagnetic waves appeared to propagate instantaneously, but over very long distances its finite speed has a noticeable effect. For example, light from stars left them many years previously. The speed of light was used to measure large distances to a high precision. As defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year was the distance light travelled in a vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days).The term light-year is sometimes misinterpreted as a unit of time, but it is, of course, a unit of length - approximately 9 trillion kilometres (or about 6 trillion miles). If you could travel at thirty  million miles an hour, it would take 40 years to cover two light years.
THE PAVLOV INSTITUTE The Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, was located at 6 Makarova Embankment, near the Strelka on Vasilievsky Island in St Petersburg, formerly Leningrad. Established in 1925 as the Physiological Institute on the initiative of I. P. Pavlov (the first director), it was a development of the Physiological Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences established in 1864 by V. F. Ovsyannikov. The institute mainly researched the problems of higher nervous activity during the first years of its existence. It was renamed the Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Higher Nervous Activity in 1934. In 1936, it was united with the Laboratory of Animal Physiology in Moscow, becoming the I. P. Pavlov Physiological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR headed by L. A. Orbeli in 1936 - 50. During the years of the Great Patriotic War of 1941- 45, the institute conducted research, which was important for the war effort (the effects of insufficient oxygen on the human body as well as blast waves from explosions etc.). The institute received its present-day name in 1950 as a result of merging with the Institute of Physiology of the Central Nervous System and the I. P. Pavlov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Pathology of Nervous Activity. A section of cosmic biology and physiology was formed in 1961. THE SOVIET EMPIRE In 1980 the Soviet Empire covered nearly one sixth of the land surface of the Earth. It stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Bearing Straight and from Cape Chelyuskin, Siberia to the Afghan border. JALALABAD AFGHANISTAN
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SIBIR The territory of Sibir extended eastward from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic basins, and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and the borders of Mongolia and China. Some said that its name originated from the Siberian Tatar word for "sleeping land" (Sib Ir) but others disagreed. Many called it Siberia. With an area of nearly ten million square kilometres, Sibir was vast. To the west, it  was a swampy plain, whereas the central plateau was heavily forested, and the east boasted mountains that towered above three thousand metres. True tundra was found in the extreme north, where the temperature could plummet to minus sixty-eight degrees Centigrade in winter. Sibir made up about two thirds of Russia's territory, but held less than a third of Russia's population. That was equivalent to an average population density of about three inhabitants per square kilometre, making it one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. In summer water flowed and mosquitoes flew. Tardigrades in Sibir were different, only having three pairs of legs.
ULAN-UDE, BURYATIA The Republic of Buryatia was part of the Russian Federation in South East Siberia, with a population of about a million people. They consisted of Russians, Buryats, Evenks, Soyotes and others, ethnic Buryats made up a third of the population. The Russian settlements in Buryatia started in the 17th century. Cossacks were the largest group of the Russians who sought their fortune in Trans-Baikalia. Another large ethnic Russian group in Buryatia and Trans-Baikal is made up by “so-called” Old Believers (“semeiskiye”), really the descendants of Old Believers who were exiled to Siberia in the second half of the 18th century. The Cossacks started trading in 1625 at Udinsky Ostrog - the fort at the confluence of the Uda and Selenga rivers. After several name changes, in 1934 its name finally settled on Ulan-Ude. The industrial and commercial centre of the Buryat Republic. It was closer to Beijing, Tokyo or Delhi than Moscow. The sharp, continental climate of Buryatia caused a large range in annual and daily temperatures. However, the most notable feature of the Buryat climate was clear skies – nearly three hundred days of sunshine.
TENGRI Tengri was the main god of the Turkic pantheon, controlling the celestial sphere. Tengri is a pure, white goose that flies constantly over an endless expanse of water, which represents time. Beneath this water, Ak Ana, the White Mother urges him to "create". To overcome his loneliness, Tengri creates Er Kishi, and together they set up the world. Er Kishi becomes a demonic character and strives to mislead people and draw them into darkness. Tengri assumes the name Tengri Ülgen and withdraws into Heaven from which he tries to provide people with guidance through sacred animals that he sends among them. Amongst the Buryats, Tengri has children—the western ones being good and the eastern ones wicked. The gods of the Buryats number ninety- nine and fall into two categories: the fifty-five good gods of the west whose attribute is white, and the fourty-four wicked gods of the east whose attribute is black. The leader of the latter is Erlik khan of the Altai Kizhi people, who is the ruler of the Underworld. Besides gods and the progeny of gods—both sons and daughters—other spirits also inhabit all three worlds. Fire is also personified, as is the Earth itself. Such personifications are represented in idols as well. Humans are thought to have a body, a soul, or even several souls. Among these may be a mirror soul, which can be seen when looking into water, and a shadow soul, which is visible even when the sun is shining.
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LAKE BAIKAL The Chinese referred to Lake Baikal as Beihai when they travelled with the Huns but Baikal probably came from the Yakut, Baigal - meaning sea. Baikal was a place of magic, mystery and awe - the Sacred Sea. Lake Baikal formed from a geographical upheaval, where two continental plates collided, was part of the process that led to the formation of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, that started about twenty-five million years ago but peaked in activity three to five million years ago. It was enormous - six hundred and thirty-six kilometres long and at its deepest, one thousand six hundred and twenty metres. It contained about twenty percent of the world's fresh water; more than all the Great North American lakes combined. There were three hundred to five hundred tributaries to the lake, but only one outlet, the Angara, which was dammed at Irkutsk in the 1950s, raising the level of the lake by 1.4metres. The lake was cold, apart from the surface in summer and was rich in oxygen, which supportede a variety of microorganisms.
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Snoozing dogs productions 
LAKE BAIKAL The Chinese referred to Lake Baikal as Beihai when they travelled with the Huns but Baikal probably came from the Yakut, Baigal - meaning sea. Baikal was a place of magic, mystery and awe - the Sacred Sea. Lake Baikal formed from a geographical upheaval, where two continental plates collided, was part of the process that led to the formation of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, that started about twenty-five million years ago but peaked in activity three to five million years ago. It was enormous - six hundred and thirty-six kilometres long and at its deepest, one thousand six hundred and twenty metres. It contained about twenty percent of the world's fresh water; more than all the Great North American lakes combined. There were three hundred to five hundred tributaries to the lake, but only one outlet, the Angara, which was dammed at Irkutsk in the 1950s, raising the level of the lake by 1.4metres. The lake was cold, apart from the surface in summer and was rich in oxygen, which supportede a variety of microorganisms.
THE PAVLOV INSTITUTE The Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, was located at 6 Makarova Embankment, near the Strelka on Vasilievsky Island in St Petersburg, formerly Leningrad. Established in 1925 as the Physiological Institute on the initiative of I. P. Pavlov (the first director), it was a development of the Physiological Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences established in 1864 by V. F. Ovsyannikov. The institute mainly researched the problems of higher nervous activity during the first years of its existence. It was renamed the Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Higher Nervous Activity in 1934. In 1936, it was united with the Laboratory of Animal Physiology in Moscow, becoming the I. P. Pavlov Physiological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR headed by L. A. Orbeli in 1936 - 50. During the years of the Great Patriotic War of 1941- 45, the institute conducted research, which was important for the war effort (the effects of insufficient oxygen on the human body as well as blast waves from explosions etc.). The institute received its present-day name in 1950 as a result of merging with the Institute of Physiology of the Central Nervous System and the I. P. Pavlov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Pathology of Nervous Activity. A section of cosmic biology and physiology was formed in 1961. THE SOVIET EMPIRE In 1980 the Soviet Empire covered nearly one sixth of the land surface of the Earth. It stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Bearing Straight and from Cape Chelyuskin, Siberia to the Afghan border. JALALABAD AFGHANISTAN
© OpenStreetMap contributors
SIBIR The territory of Sibir extended eastward from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic basins, and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and the borders of Mongolia and China. Some said that its name originated from the Siberian Tatar word for "sleeping land" (Sib Ir) but others disagreed. Many called it Siberia. With an area of nearly ten million square kilometres, Sibir was vast. To the west, it  was a swampy plain, whereas the central plateau was heavily forested, and the east boasted mountains that towered above three thousand metres. True tundra was found in the extreme north, where the temperature could plummet to minus sixty-eight degrees Centigrade in winter. Sibir made up about two thirds of Russia's territory, but held less than a third of Russia's population. That was equivalent to an average population density of about three inhabitants per square kilometre, making it one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. In summer water flowed and mosquitoes flew. Tardigrades in Sibir were different, only having three pairs of legs.
© OpenStreetMap contributors
ULAN-UDE, BURYATIA The Republic of Buryatia was part of the Russian Federation in South East Siberia, with a population of about a million people. They consisted of Russians, Buryats, Evenks, Soyotes and others, ethnic Buryats made up a third of the population. The Russian settlements in Buryatia started in the 17th century. Cossacks were the largest group of the Russians who sought their fortune in Trans-Baikalia. Another large ethnic Russian group in Buryatia and Trans-Baikal is made up by “so-called” Old Believers (“semeiskiye”), really the descendants of Old Believers who were exiled to Siberia in the second half of the 18th century. The Cossacks started trading in 1625 at Udinsky Ostrog - the fort at the confluence of the Uda and Selenga rivers. After several name changes, in 1934 its name finally settled on Ulan-Ude. The industrial and commercial centre of the Buryat Republic. It was closer to Beijing, Tokyo or Delhi than Moscow. The sharp, continental climate of Buryatia caused a large range in annual and daily temperatures. However, the most notable feature of the Buryat climate was clear skies – nearly three hundred days of sunshine.
© OpenStreetMap contributors
Hotel Buriatya
TENGRI Tengri was the main god of the Turkic pantheon, controlling the celestial sphere. Tengri is a pure, white goose that flies constantly over an endless expanse of water, which represents time. Beneath this water, Ak Ana, the White Mother urges him to "create". To overcome his loneliness, Tengri creates Er Kishi, and together they set up the world. Er Kishi becomes a demonic character and strives to mislead people and draw them into darkness. Tengri assumes the name Tengri Ülgen and withdraws into Heaven from which he tries to provide people with guidance through sacred animals that he sends among them. Amongst the Buryats, Tengri has children—the western ones being good and the eastern ones wicked. The gods of the Buryats number ninety- nine and fall into two categories: the fifty-five good gods of the west whose attribute is white, and the fourty-four wicked gods of the east whose attribute is black. The leader of the latter is Erlik khan of the Altai Kizhi people, who is the ruler of the Underworld. Besides gods and the progeny of gods—both sons and daughters—other spirits also inhabit all three worlds. Fire is also personified, as is the Earth itself. Such personifications are represented in idols as well. Humans are thought to have a body, a soul, or even several souls. Among these may be a mirror soul, which can be seen when looking into water, and a shadow soul, which is visible even when the sun is shining.
TARDIGRADES Tardigrades are microscopic, water- dwelling, segmented animals with eight legs. They have been on earth for 530 million years and are found all over the world. In fresh water sediments, there may be as many as twenty-five thousand per litre. They survive extreme environments that would kill almost any other animal, including temperatures close to absolute zero or as high as 151°C, a thousand times more radiation than other animals and almost a decade without water. They have also survived exposure to the vacuum of outer space.
KOREANS Koreans are believed to be from the Altaic – speaking tribes, named after the Altai Mountains, in Central Asia. Early Koreans migrated from south-central Siberia to populate ancient Korea in successive waves from the Neolithic age to the Bronze Age. Koreans are one of the largest ethnically and linguistically homogeneous groups in the world. They refer to themselves as Choson Saram or Hanguk Saram.
LIGHT After detailed study of the motion of Jupiter's moon Io, Ole Rømer concluded in 1676 that light travelled at a finite speed. In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell, building on the earlier work of Ampère, Coulomb and Faraday, proposed that light was an electromagnetic wave, and therefore travelled at the speed (c) relative to some unconfirmed medium he called “aether”. Michelson-Morley’s experiments of 1887, failed to find this “aether” but unexpectedly demonstrated that light travelled at the same speed regardless of whether it was measured in the direction of the Earth’s motion or at right angles to it; completely contrary to classical physics and common sense at the time. In 1905, Einstein realised that Maxwell’s equations led to an apparent paradox in the laws of physics. They suggested that by catching up to a beam of light, a stationary electromagnetic wave could be seen - an impossibility. He also realised that the whole idea of aether as a medium for light to travel in was totally unnecessary. According to Einstein’s theory of special relativity, the speed of light (c) was the maximum speed at which all matter (and thus information) in the universe could travel. For many practical purposes, light and other electromagnetic waves appeared to propagate instantaneously, but over very long distances its finite speed has a noticeable effect. For example, light from stars left them many years previously. The speed of light was used to measure large distances to a high precision. As defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year was the distance light travelled in a vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days).The term light-year is sometimes misinterpreted as a unit of time, but it is, of course, a unit of length - approximately 9 trillion kilometres (or about 6 trillion miles). If you could travel at thirty  million miles an hour, it would take 40 years to cover two light years.